Other systemic diseases and conditions
Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory diseases, chronic kidney disease, and others, may be related to periodontal disease

Other systemic diseases and conditions

So far, most studies linking periodontal disease to systemic diseases have focused on diabetes, cardiovascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there are other systemic diseases and

Adverse pregnancy outcomes
Preliminary studies suggest that periodontal disease in pregnant women is an added risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term delivery, low birthweight infants and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.

Adverse pregnancy outcomes

Pathogenic Mechanisms

During pregnancy, due to hormonal changes, there is a certain systemic propensity to periodontal problems. The most pathogenic bacteria of the biofilm, (Socransky’s orange and

Diabetes
Periodontal disease can increase the risk of developing diabetes or affect its control and treatment.

Diabetes

Epidaemiology

Periodontitis and diabetes are chronic diseases of ever-growing worldwide prevalence. Ninety percent of the population is estimated to have some type of oral infectious disease, including

Cardiovascular disease
A clear link exists between periodontal disease severity and the occurrence of coronary arteriosclerosis regardless of other risk factors.

Cardiovascular disease

The relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease has been extensively studied over the past decades through in vitro studies, animal models, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized

Periodontal disease and systemic diseases
There is evidence that show the relationship between the periodontal disease and certain systemic conditions.

Periodontal disease and systemic diseases

Gingivitis and periodontitis are two stages of periodontal disease, which are generally chronic, infectious and inflammatory in nature, are located in the tooth support tissues and which

Peri-implantitis
Peri-implantitis is the most advanced form of peri-implant disease, involving inflammatory lesions of the mucosa that surrounds implants, associated with supporting bone loss.

Peri-implantitis

Peri-implant mucositis has a low potential for inflammatory response, and thus, when oral biofilm accumulation exists, the inflammation spreads deeper, possibly causing implant loss. Peri-implantitis has an

Peri-implant mucositis
Peri-implant mucositis is a disease that involves inflammatory lesions of the mucosa that surrounds implants, without supporting bone loss.

Peri-implant mucositis

Because peri-implant tissues have a lower capacity to react to the accumulation of oral biofilm compared to periodontal tissues, peri-implant disease is highly prevalent among implant patients.

Periodontitis is a form of gum disease with infectious aetiology that involves destruction of the periodontium due to excess accumulation of oral biofilm.

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is the most advanced form of gum disease and can potentially have an impact on a systemic level, with a prevalence of 35.4% in adults between

Association between biofilm and infection
Diseases that have proven to be directly associated with biofilm-related infections include caries, gingivitis and periodontitis.

Association between biofilm and infection

The data reflects the importance of biofilms as a source for local infections that can trigger complications on a systemic level.

Many non-pathogenic organisms exist that produce